Feasibility, accuracy, and clinical eff ect of point-of-care Xpert MTB/RIF testing for tuberculosis in primary-care settings in Africa: a multicentre, randomised, controlled trial

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Grant Theron, Lynn Zijenah, Duncan Chanda, Petra Clowes, Andrea Rachow, Maia Lesosky, Wilbert Bara, Stanley Mungofa, Madhukar Pai,
Michael Hoelscher, David Dowdy, Alex Pym, Peter Mwaba, Peter Mason, Jonny Peter, Keertan Dheda, for the TB-NEAT team*

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Summary
Background The Xpert MTB/RIF test for tuberculosis is being rolled out in many countries, but evidence is lacking regarding its implementation outside laboratories, ability to inform same-day treatment decisions at the point of care, and clinical effect on tuberculosis-related morbidity. We aimed to assess the feasibility, accuracy, and clinical effect of point-of-care Xpert MTB/RIF testing at primary-care health-care facilities in southern Africa.